This was part of my PhD in Scotland. I used the long-term ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) dataset of the UK Environmental Change Network to investigate whether ground beetles start their activity earlier in the spring and cease it later in the autumn over a twenty-year period. A gradual change in both directions was expected as a response to climate change but we have only found support for the earlier emergence/start of activity. The timing of autumn hibernation, thus, seems to be

Carabus problematicus ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on Sphagnum moss

driven by cues other than temperature; most likely photoperiod .
Our finding that the species that did not alter their phenology declined more than those that did is of high conservation interest.

Pozsgai, G., & Littlewood, N. A. (2011). Changes in the phenology of the ground beetle Pterostichus madidus (Fabricius, 1775). Insect Science, 18(4), 462–472. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7917.2011.01416.x Cite
Pozsgai, G., & Littlewood, N. A. (2014). Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) population declines and phenological changes: Is there a connection? Ecological Indicators, 41, 15–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.01.029 Cite
Pozsgai, G., Baird, J., Littlewood, N. A., Pakeman, R. J., & Young, M. R. (2018). Phenological changes of the most commonly sampled ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species in the UK environmental change network. International Journal of Biometeorology, 62(6), 1063–1074. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-018-1509-3 Cite
Rennie, S., Adamson, J., Anderson, R., Andrews, C., Bater, J., Bayfield, N., Beaton, K., Beaumont, D., Benham, S., Bowmaker, V., Britt, C., Brooker, R., Brooks, D., Brunt, J., Common, G., Cooper, R., Corbett, S., Critchley, N., Dennis, P., … Whittaker, M. (2015). UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) carabid beetle data: 1992-2012. NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. https://doi.org/10.5285/4c9613ce-de52-41b1-9fde-7c41f9199686 Cite
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